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    Clubfoot (Child)

    Overview
    Causes
    Symptoms
    Risk Factors

    Prevention
    When To Seek Help
    Treatment Options
    Where To Seek Treatment

    Singapore General Hospital
    Contributed by Dept of Neonatal & Developmental Medicine

    Overview

    Clubfoot is a congenital condition where the forefoot (part of the foot connected to the lower leg bone) is abnormally twisted relative to the lower leg bone.

    Congenital Talipes Equino Varus (CTEV) is a condition where the sole of the foot is turned inwards and backwards. In Congenital Talipes Calcano Valgus (CTCV), the sole is turned outwards and upwards. The condition may affect one or both feet.


    Causes

    The deformity of the foot may be due to prolonged positioning in the uterus (womb) and the limited mobility, an abnormal uterine shape or a lack of amniotic fluid.

    In most babies where the clubfoot is postural, the forefoot can be passively moved through a complete range of motion. In some babies, the clubfoot is structural and the joint deformity appears fixed and the forefoot cannot be passively moved through its full range of motion.

    If both feet are affected, the doctor may look for abnormalities at the lower end of your baby’s spine.


    Symptoms

    The condition is often quite obvious after the birth of your child. The physical appearance of the foot may vary. One or both feet may be turned inwards. The calf muscle and the affected foot may be slightly smaller than normal.


    Risk Factors

    Clubfoot is a common congenital condition. One in every 1,000 newborns has clubfoot and the condition is more common in male babies. The risk goes up for babies whose parents or family members have had clubfoot.

    Primary risk factors:
    - Gender (male)
    - Family history


    Prevention

    As the cause of clubfoot is unknown, there are no proven natural or clinically approved methods for preventing it.


    When To Seek Help

    Consult your doctor if you notice any abnormal appearance or movement of your baby’s feet.


    Treatment Options

    Babies with clubfoot are usually referred to a physiotherapist for evaluation and treatment. Treatment consists of joint manipulation as well as strapping with tape to improve joint mobility. In more severe cases, where joint manipulation and strapping are ineffective, plaster casting and referral to an orthopedic surgeon may be required.

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