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    Medical Conditions and Treatments

    Welcome to our Conditions and Treatments section. 

    You will find information on various health conditions and medical treatments as well as surgery treatment options, sourced from our Hospitals - Singapore General Hospital, KK Women's and Children's Hospital, and National Speciality Centres for Cancer, Heart, Neuroscience, Eye and Dental - across the SingHealth group.
    From overviews of the health condition, to disease risk factors, signs and symptoms , preventive steps, treatment options as well as how to manage your health condition at home, we hope you find the write-ups useful.


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    A
    AA - Terms of Use / Disclaimer
    Abdominal Pain
    Abdominal Pain (Child)
    Abdominal Sacropolpopexy
    Abdominal Surgery
    Abnormal Blood Tests
    Abnormal Heart Rhythm / Arrhythmia
    Abscess - Dental
    Acoustic Neuroma (Acoustic Schwannoma)
    Acute Appendicitis (Child)
    Acute Bronchitis in Children
    Acute Laryngotracheobrontis (ALTB) or Croup (Child)
    Acute Pharyngitis and Tonsillitis
    Adult Congenital Heart Disease (ACHD)
    Adult Hydrocephalus
    Aesthetic Eyelid Surgery
    Age Related Macular Degeneration (AMD)
    Allergic Rhinitis
    Allergies (Child)
    Amblyopia (Lazy Eye)
    Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring
    Ambulatory Blood Pressure Watch Monitoring
    Ambulatory ECG - Holter Monitoring
    Anaemia
    ​Anaesthesia
    Anal Abscess and Fistula
    Anal Fissure
    Anal Itch (Pruritus Ani)
    Anal Surgery
    Anal Warts
    Aneurysm
    Antenatal Depression
    Anterior Curiate Ligament Reconstruction
    Antibiotics (Child)
    Aortic Dissection
    Aphthous Ulcer
    Arteriovenous Malformation (AVM)
    Arthritis
    Arthroscopy
    Asthma
    Asthma (Child)
    Astigmatism
    Atrial Septal Defect (Child)
    Atrial Septal Defect
    Atypical Hyperplasia
    Atypical Toothache
    Auditory Verbal Therapy
    Autism (Child)
    Autistic Spectrum Disorder (Child)
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    B
    Bad Breath (Halitosis)
    Barium Studies
    Bedwetting
    Bedwetting (Child)
    Behaviour (Child)
    Behavioural Insomnia in Childhood
      - Sleep Onset Association Disorder
      - Limit-Setting Sleep Disorder
    Benign Prostatic Enlargement
    Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)
    Birth Control - Intrauterine-Contraceptive Device (IUCD)
    Birth Control - Laparoscopic Bilateral Tubal Ligation
    Bisphosphonates and its Dental Implications
    Bladder Cancer
    Bladder Cancer Surgery
    Bleeding Tendency
    Blepharitis (Eyelid Infections /Styes)
    Bonding (Child)
    Bone Mineral Density Scan (DEXA)
    Bone Scan
    Bowel Incontinence
    Braces
    Brain Aneurysm
    Brain Cancer
    Brain Scan
    Brain Tumour and Surgery
    Brain Tumour Biopsy

    Breast Cancer
    Breast Cancer -Diagnosis to Treatment
    Breast Cancer – Early Detection and Screening

    Breastfeeding - For Working Mothers
    Breastfeeding - Give Your Child a Headstart
    Bronchiolitis (Child)
    Brugada Syndrome
    Burch Colposuspension
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    C
    Cancer
    Cancer (Child)
    Cancer Pain
    Cardiac Arrest (Sudden Cardiac Death)
    Cardiac Catheterisation
    Cardiac Computed Tomography (CT)
    Cardiac Pacemaker Implantation
    Cardiac Tamponade
    Caries / Tooth Decay
    Caries Risk Assessment
    Carotid Endarterectomy
    Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
    Cataracts
    Catheter Ablation
    Central Serous Chorioretinopathy
    Cerebral Aneurysm
    Cervical Spondylosis
    Cervix Cancer (Cervical Cancer)
    Cervical Cancer Surgery
    Change in Bowel Habit
    Chemotherapy
    Chest Wall Diseases
    Chest X-Ray
    Childhood Myopia
    Cholesterol
    Cholesterol Management
    Chronic Back Pain
    Chronic Constipation
    Chronic Lung Disease (Child)
    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
    Chronic Post-surgical Pain
    Chronic Subdural Haematoma
    Circadian Rhythm Problems
    Circumcision
    Circumcision (Child)
    Cleft Lip and Palate
    Clomid
    Clubfoot (Child)
    Cochlear Implant
    Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy
    Colic (Baby)
    Colonoscopy
    Colorectal Cancer
    Colorectum Cancer (Colorectal Cancer)
    Colposuspension (Incontinence Surgery)
    Computed Tomography (CT)
    Cone-Biopsy / Leep of the Cervix
    Confidence (Child)
    Congenital Hip Dislocation (Baby)
    Congenital Muscular Torticollis (Baby)
    Congenital Talipes Equino Varus (Club Foot)
    Contact Microscopic Endoscopy
    Convulsion without Fever (Child)
    Corneal Infections
    Coronary Angiography
    Coronary Angioplasty
    Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG)
    Coronary Artery Disease/Coronary Heart Disease
    Coronary Atherectomy
    Coronary Stent Implantation
    Cough & Cold (Child)
    Cracked Tooth
    Crohn's Disease
    Croup (Child)
    Crowns & Bridges
    Crying (Baby)
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    D
    Day Surgery (Child)
    Decompressive Craniectomy
    Deep Vein Thrombosis
    Dementia
    Dengue Fever (Child)
    Dental Implants
    Dentures
    Depression
    Development (Child)
    Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip (Child)
    Diabetes Management
    Diabetes Mellitus
    Diabetic Retinopathy
    Dialysis
    Diarrhoea (Child)
    Diplopia (Double Vision)
    Discoloured Teeth
    Diverticular Disease
    Donor Insemination Programme
    Droopy Eyelids (Ptosis)
    Dry Eyes
    Duct Ectasia
    Dyspepsia (Peptic Ulcer Disease)
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    E
    Ear Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media
    Ear (Foreign Objects) (Child)
    Ear Infections (Child)
    Ear Otitis Externa
    Ear Acute Otitis Media
    Ear Otitis Media (Child)
    Ear Otitis Media with Effusion (OME)
    Ear Pinna Infection
    Earwax In Children
    Early Childhood Caries
    Echocardiogram
    ECG or Electrocardiogram
    Eczema (Child)
    Emergency (Child)
    Endodontic Surgery
    Entropion (Inverted Eyelids)
    Epiblepharon (Inverted Eyelashes)
    Epidural Blood Patch
    Epidural Lysis of Adhesions
    Epidural Steroid Injection
    Epilepsy
    Epiretinal Membrane (Macular Pucker)
    Erectile Dysfunction
    Erectile Dysfunction in Cardiovascular Disease
    Excessive Daytime Sleepiness
    External Ventricular Drain
    Extra-Corporeal Membrane Oxygenator (ECMO)
    Eye Infections (Red Eyes)
    Eyelid Infections (Blepharitis /Styes)
    Eyelid Twitches (Spasms)
    Eye Socket Reconstruction
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    F
    Facet Joint Syndrome and Treatment
    Facial Nerve Pain (Neuralgias)
    Facial Pain
    Fatty Liver
    Febrile Fits (Child)
    Fever (Child)
    Fibroadenoma
    Fibrocystic Change
    Fillings
    Floaters and Flashes
    Food & Nutrition - Burping
    Food & Nutrition - Fussy Eaters / Food Fads
    Food & Nutrition - Meals
    Food & Nutrition - Vegetables
    Food & Nutrition - Vitamin Supplements
    Food & Nutrition - Weaning
    Foot and Ankle
    Functional Neurosurgery
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    G
    Gallbladder Scan
    Gallstones
    Gastric Cancer
    Gastroenteritis (Food Poisoning)
    Gastrointestinal Tract
    Gastro-oesophageal Reflux (GERD)
    Gingivitis
    Glaucoma
    Glue Ear - Otitis Media with Effusion (OME)
    Gout
    Gum Infections
    Gynaecomastia
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    H
    Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (Child)
    Headaches
    Headache in Children (Child)
    Head and Neck Cancer
    Head and Neck Surgery
    Head Injury
    Head Injury (Child)
    Hearing (Child)
    Hearing Loss
    Hearing Tests
    Heart (Child)
    Heart - How the Heart Works (Child)
    Heart Attack (Chest Pain)
    Heart Bypass Surgery (Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting - CABG)
    Heart Failure
    Heart Scans
    Heart Transplantation
    Helicobacter Pylori Breath Test
    Hemophilia
    Hemorrhoids (Piles)
    Hepatitis A
    Hepatitis B
    Hepatitis C
    Hernias & Hydrocoele (Child)
    High Blood Pressure / Hypertension Management
    High Fibre Diet
    Hip Osteoarthritis
    Hip Surgery
    Hole in the Heart (Child)
    Hyperopia (Long-sightedness)
    Hypertension
    Hypothyroidism (Child)
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    I
    Impacted Wisdom Tooth (Infections)
    Implantable Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD) Implantation
    Incontinence Surgery (Colposuspension)
    Infertility Treatment
    Inflammatory Bowel Disease
    Inguinal Hernia (Child)
    Injuries (Child)
    Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders (FGID)
    Insomnia
    Intracerebral Hemorrhage
    Intracranial Pressure Monitor
    Intraductal Papillomas
    Intrathecal Drug Delivery
    Intravenous Urography
    In-Vitro Fertilisation (IVF) / Intra-Cytoplasmic Sperm (ICSI)
    Irritable Bowel Syndrome
    Inverted Eyelids (Entropion)
    Inverted Eyelashes (Epiblepharon)
    Ischaemic Optic Neuropathy
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    J
    Jaundice
    Jaundice (Baby)
    Jaw Joint / TMJ Surgery
    Jaw Surgery
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    K
    Kidney Cancer
    Kidney Cancer Surgery
    Kidney Failure
    Kidney Scans
    Kidney Stones
    Kidney Swelling - Hydronephrosis
    Kidney Transplant
    Knee Injuries
    Knee Injuries - Cartilage Injuries
    Knee Injuries - Knee Cap Injury
    Knee Injuries - Ligament Injuries
    Knee Injuries - Osteoarthritis of the Knee
    Knee Injuries - Tendon Injuries and Disorders
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    L
    Labour Analgesia
    "Lao Hua" (Presbyopia)
    Laryngopharyngeal Reflux
    Larynx Cancer
    Lazy Eye (Amblyopia)
    Lead Extraction
    Learning (Child)
    Liver Cancer
    Liver Cirrhosis
    Liver Transplant
    Liver Tumours
    Living With Cancer
    Lobular Carcinoma in Situ
    Long-sightedness (Hyperopia)
    Low Back Pain
    Low Back Pain (Spine Care)
    Lumbar Disc Replacement Surgery
    Lumbar Herniated Discectomy
    Lumbar Puncture
    Lung Cancer
    Lung Scan
    Lung Transplantation
    Lymphoedema
    Lymphoma Cancer
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    M
    Macular Hole
    Macular Pucker (Epiretinal Membrane)
    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
    Male Infertility
    Malocclusion (Dental)
    Mammography
    Mandibular Advancement Splints (MAS)
    Mastitis
    Maze Surgery
    Mechanical Heart Assist Device
    Medical Emergencies
    Meningiomas
    Menopause
    Metastatic Brain Tumours
    Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS)
    MIS - General Surgery
    Breast Biopsy and MIS Procedures
    Gastrointestinal MIS Procedures
    - Laparoscopic Anti-Reflux Surgery
    - Laparoscopic Appendicectomy
    - Bariatric (Weight Loss) Surgery
    - Laparoscopic Gallbladder Surgery
    - Laparoscopic Hernia Repair
    - Laparoscopic Liver Surgery
    - Other Gastrointestinal MIS Procedures
    Thoracic MIS Procedures
    Vascular MIS Procedures
    - Endovascular Aortic Stent Grafting and Laparoscopic Aortic Surgery
    - Percutaneous Transluminal Arterioplasty (PTA) and Stenting
    Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Procedures
    Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS)
    MIS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology (O&G)
    MIS - Orthopaedics
    Arthroscopy
    Spine MIS Procedures
    MIS - Neurosurgery
    MIS - Otolaryngology (Ear, Nose Throat)
    MIS - Urology
    MIS - Colorectal Surgery
    Multiple Myeloma
    Muscle Diseases
    Musculoskeletal Disorders and Office Ergonomics
    Musculoskeletal Tumours
    Myasthenia Gravis
    Myopia (Short-sightedness)
    Myopia (Child)
    Myopic Maculopathy
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    N
    Nasal Polyps
    Nasopharynx Cancer (Nasopharyngeal Cancer or Nose Cancer)
    Neck Pain
    Neuro-oncology
    Neuropathic (Nerve) Pain Syndrome
    Neurostimulation
    Neurotrauma
    Neurovascular
    Nose (Child)
    Nose - Virtual Tour
    Nosebleeds in Children
    Nuclear Cardiology
    Nutrition During Cancer Therapy
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    O
    Obesity Exercise (Child)
    Obesity Management
    Obstructive Jaundice
    Obstructive Sleep Apnoea
    Obstructive Sleep Apnoea in Children
    Obstructive Sleep Apnoea - Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Therapy
    Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)
    Obstructive Sleep Apnea - The Dental & Maxillofacial Management
    Ocular Inflammation and Immunology
    Oesophageal Cancer
    Oesophagus Cancer
    Office Ergonomics
    Off-Pump / Beating Heart Surgery
    Optic Neuritis
    Orbital Disorders
    Orthodontics
    Orthodontics - About Braces
    Orthodontics - After Braces Always Retainers
    Orthodontics - Important Information for Orthodontic Patients
    Orthodontics - Preparing for Braces
    Orthognathic Surgery
    Orthopaedic (Child)
    Orthopaedic - Back Pain & Spine-Deformity (Child)
    Orthopaedic - Limb Length Discrepancy (LLD) & Deformities Child)
    Orthopaedic - Sports Injuries (Child)
    Osteoarthritis - Knee Pain
    Osteoporosis
    Ovarian Cancer
    Ovarian Cancer Surgery
    Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrom (OHSS)
    Overactive Bladder
    Overweight (Child)
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    P
    Paediatric Dentistry - Caring for your Infant's Teeth
    Paediatric Dentistry - Early Childhood Caries (ECC)
    Paediatric Dentistry - Preventing Decay with Sealants
    Paediatric Dentistry - Your Child's Visit to the Dentist
    Pain Disorders Surgery
    Pancreas Cancer (Pancreatic Cancer)
    Pancreatic Tumours
    Pap Smear Screening and Treatment for Pre-Cancer of the Cervix
    Parasomnias in Children
    Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders
    Patent Ductus Arteriosus
    Patent Foramen Ovale
    Pelvic Floor Disorders
    Pelvic Floor Exercises
    Pelvic Floor Repair
    Peptic Ulcer Disease (PUD)
    Penis Abnormality - Hypospadias
    Percutaneous Aortic Valve Replacement (PAVR)
    Percutaneous Transluminal Balloon Valvuloplasty
    Perinatal Depression
    Periodontal Disease & General Health
    Periodontal (Gum) Disease
    Periodontal Surgery
    Periodontal Surgery / Gum Surgery
    Periodontitis
    Peripartum Cardiomyopathy
    Peripheral Arterial Disease
    Peripheral Neuropathy
    Per Rectal Bleeding
    Pes Planus (Flexible Flat Feet)
    Physiotherapy for OveractiveBladder
    Physiotherapy for Pelvic Organ Prolapse
    Physiotherapy for Stress Urinary Incontinence
    Pilonidal Disease
    Pituitary Tumours
    Play (Child)
    Pneumonia
    Pneumonia (Child)
    Polyps
    Post-injury Chronic Pain
    Post Dural Puncture Headache
    Postnatal Depression
    Plagiocephaly
    Planning for Baby - Thalassaemia
    Planning for Baby - Eat Right
    Planning for Baby - Smoking and Pregnancy
    Pregnancy - Care During Pregnancy
    Pregnancy - Count to Ten Fetal Movement
    Pregnancy - Diet and Your Pregnancy
    Pregnancy - Discomforts
    Pregnancy - Ectopic Pregnancy
    Pregnancy - Facts and Fallacies Female
    Pregnancy - Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease
    Labour and Delivery
    Pregnancy - Miscarriage
    Pregnancy - Pain Relief in Labour Female
    Pregnancy - Problems
    Pregnancy - Vaginal Birth After Caesarean Section
    Pregnancy Tests - Amniocentesis Female
    Pregnancy Tests - Chorionic Villus Sampling
    Pregnancy Tests - Fetal-Blood Sampling
    Pregnancy Tests - First Trimester Screening
    Pregnancy Tests - HIV
    Pregnancy Tests - Maternal Serum Screening
    After Pregnancy - Adapting to Baby
    After Pregnancy - Going Home
    After Pregnancy - Skin-to-Skin Contact with Baby
    Prepare (Child)
    Presbyopia ("Lao Hua")
    Preventing Falls
    Primary Pulmonary Hypertension
    Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy
    Prostate Cancer
    Prostate Cancer Surgery
    Pterygium
    Ptosis (Droopy Eyelids)
    Pulmonary Stenosis
    Pulpitis (Toothache)
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    Q
    -
    Back to Top


    R
    Radiation Therapy
    Radical Hysterectomy
    Radiofrequency Lesioning (Thermoablation)
    Radioiodine Treatment
    Radiotherapy and its Dental Implications
    Rectal Prolapse
    Red Eyes (Eye Infections)
    Retinal Detachment
    Retinal Tears
    Retinal Vascular Disorders
    Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP)
    Rheumatoid Arthritis
    Rhinitis
    Risk and Evaluation Prevention (REAP) Clinic
    Root Canal Treatment
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    S
    Sacroiliac Joint Pain and Treatment
    Sacrospinous Fixation
    Same Day Admission Surgery (Child)
    Sarcoma Cancer (Sarcomas)
    Scoliosis
    Sealants
    Senses (Child)
    Shoulder & Elbow Injuries
    Shoulder & Elbow Injuries - Frozen-Shoulder
    Shoulder & Elbow Injuries - Rotator-Cuff
    Shoulder & Elbow Injuries - Stiff Elbow
    Shoulder & Elbow Injuries - Tennis Elbow Lateral Epicondylitis
    Sibling Rivalry (Child)
    Signal-Averaged ECG (SA ECG)
    Sinusitis
    Skin Cancer
    Skin Infections (Child)
    Skull Base
    Sleep Advice for Parents of Newborns and Infants
    Sleep (Child)
    Sleep Deprivation
    Sleep-disordered Breathing and Snoring
    Sleep Disorders
    Sleep is Important
    Sleep Movement Disorders
    Sleep Physiology
    Sleep Requirements in Children and Good Sleep Hygiene and Practices
    Sleepwalking
    Sleepy Driving
    Smile Aesthetics: Aspects of an Aesthetically-Pleasing Smile
    Smile Aesthetics: Improving Your Smile
    Smile Aesthetics: Teeth Whitening
    Snoring (Child)
    Snoring and Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA)
    Snoring and Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA) Surgery
    Snoring In Children
    Spasms (Eyelid Twitches)
    Spine
    Spine and Spinal Disorders
    Spine & Peripheral Nerve
    Spine Surgery
    Spondyloarthritis
    Squint or Strabismus (Child)
    Stoma
    Stomach (Gastric) Cancer
    Stomach Scan
    Stones in the Bile Duct
    Stress Echocardiogram
    Stress Incontinence
    Stress Management
    Stress Urinary Incontinence
    Stroke
    Sudden Cardiac Death
    Superovulation and Intrauterine Insemination (SO-ISI)
    Swallowing Difficulties
    Sweaty Palms (Palmar Hyperhidrosis)
    Sympathetic Blocks
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    T
    Talk (Child)
    Tearing Disorders
    Teeth (Baby)
    Teething
    Teeth Whitening
    Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) Disorder
    Testicular Cancer
    Tetralogy of Fallot
    Thalassaemia (Child)
    Throat (Foreign Objects) (Child)
    Throat - Virtual Tour
    Thyroid Disorders
    Thyroid Disorders - Hyperthyroidism
    Thyroid Disorders - Hypothyroidism
    Thyroid Eye Disease (TED)
    Thyroid Nodules
    Thyroid Scan
    Tinnitus
    Tonsils & Adenoids (Child)
    Tooth Avulsion
    Tooth Decay
    Tooth Sensitivity
    Toothaches
    Total Abdominal Hysterectomy
    Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI)
    Transoesophageal Echocardiogram (TEE)
    Transtelephonic ECG
    Travelling With Your Child
    Trigeminal Neuralgia (Facial Pain)
    Tuberculosis
    Tuberculosis (Child)
    TVT / TVT-O Continence Surgery
    Back to Top


    U
    Ulcerative Colitis
    Ultrasound Scan
    Undescended Testicles
    Universal Newborn Hearing Screening (UNHS) (Baby)
    Upright Tilt Test
    Urinary Incontinence
    Urinary Incontinence Surgery
    Urinary Tract Infection
    Urinary Tract Infection (Child)
    Utero Vaginal Prolapse
    Uterus Cancer or Uterine Cancer (Endometrium Cancer)
    Uterus Cancer Surgery
    Uveitis
    Back to Top


    V
    Vaccinations (Child)
    Vaginal Hysterectomy
    Valve Repair / Replacement
    Valvular Heart Disease
    Vascular Investigation
    Ventricular Peritoneal Shunt
    Ventricular Septal Defect (Child)
    Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS) Pleurodesis
    Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS) Sympathectomy for Sweaty Palms
    Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS) Thymectomy
    Viral Hepatitis
    Viral Myocarditis
    Vitreomacular Traction
    Voice Check
    Voice Disorders - Acute and Chronic Laryngitis
    Voice Disorders - Muscle Tension Dysphonia
    Voice Disorders - Vocal Fold Paralysis
    Voice Disorders - Vocal Nodules, Polyps, Cysts and Tumours
    Voice Hygiene
    Voiding Disorders Women
    Vomitting (Child)
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    W
    Walking (Baby)
    What to do before your Procedure
    Wisdom Teeth (Impacted)
    Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) Syndrome
    Back to Top


    X
    -
    Back to Top


    Y
    Young Onset Cognitive Impairment (YOCI)
    Back to Top


    Z
    -
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